The only way for nails to be removed and never grow back is to remove the growth center that lies within a specific area of the first bone of the finger. If the entire growth center is not removed, the nail will grow back painfully and deformed. That is why the entire first bone in the paw must be taken off along with the nerves, tendons, ligaments, and the joint capsule. This procedure is not without risks and is banned in many countries.
There are many ways to prevent your cats from clawing your furniture. Purchasing or making a scratching post is one of the most effective ways to do this. To help train your cat to use the post sprinkle cat nip or treats in and around the post. There are also sprays you can get to make the post more appealing, or to make your furniture less appealing. There are also wax tips you can get and place over the cat's claws. Also, keeping their nails trimmed will help with this issue too.